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RECORD OF NATIVE BEES FOUND IN THE GREATER SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA REGION, WITH SOME OF THEIR LIKELY PLANT HOSTS

Compiled by Laura Arneson

 

This record excludes:

· parasitic bee species (bees which do not provision their own nests)

· bee species expected to be seen rarely or only occasionally in the Bay Area

 

Termsà

Polylectic = visits many different plants for pollen (and nectar)

Oligolege/Oligolectic = bee which/visits one or a few related plants for pollen

FAMILY, Subfamily, Tribe, Genus, Species [numbered; Subgenus in parentheses] =  Hierarchy of classification, from mostà least inclusive

 

 

FAMILY ANTHOPHORIDAE

This is the largest family of bees.  Most, except for the Xylocopinae, nest in the ground and are polylectic.

 

Subfamily:  ANTHOPHORINAE (a.k.a. digger bees)

 

Tribe:  EXOMALOPSINI

 

Genus:  Exomalopsis

 

[species likely in Bay Area]                           [floral visitation record]             [activity]

 

1.         E. (Anthophorula) albicans            /             polylectic:                                 5/30-10/5

low altitude                                     Eriogonum fasciculatum;    

Trichostema lanceolatum

Tribe:  EMPHORINI

 

Genus:  Diadasia

 

1.         D. nigrifrons            /                                   Oligolege of Sidalceae            4/9-8/5

            grasslands                                             Sidalcea malvaeflora

 

Tribe:  EUCERINI

 

Genus:  Melissodes

 

1.         M. (Callimeloissodes) lupina /             oligolege on composites:            5/20-10/6

                                                                        Adenostoma fasciculatum

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Epibolum

                                                                        Erigoron

                                                                        Eriogonum latifolium; fascinculatum

                                                                        Helianthemum scoparium

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Iris

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Polygonum

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

2.         M. (Eumelissodes) microsticta            olig summer composites:            6/1-8/1

            montane                                              Aster

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Solidago

 

3.         M. (Eumelissodes) pallidisignata             olig summer composites            7/14-9/29

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Solidago

 

4.         M. (Eumelissodes) paulula              olig summer composites:            9/8-10/6

            central valley                                        Baccharis emoryi

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Solidago

 

5.         M. (Eumelissodes) personatella            olig fall composites:                  9/22-10/6

            central valley                                        Eriogonum       

                                                                        Heterotheca

 

6.         M. (Eumelissodes) robustior                       olig summer composites:            6/26-9/14

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                       

7.         M. (Melissodes) tepida timberlakei            polylectic                                  4/25-9/29

            low elevation, not in desert               Artemisia

Asclepias eriocarpa

Coreopsis

Eriogonum fasciculatum

Plantago

Rosa

Trichostema

Trifolium

 

Genus:  Tetralonia [often referred to as Synhalonia for U.S. speices]

Not in alpine or desert communites

 

1.         T. acerba                                      oligolege on Arctostaphylos            4/4-7/6

            montane

 

2.         T. actuosa                                     polylectic                                  3/11-5/18

                                                                        Coreopsis californica

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Prunus ilicifolia

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Sambucus

                                                                        Trifolium

 

3.         T. cordleyi                                                polylectic                                  3/28-6/13

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Coreopsis maritima

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Trifolium

 

4.         T. dorsata                                     polylectic; legumes                    3/12-7/2

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Trichostema

 

5.         T. edwardsii                                              polylectic; legumes                    3/17-6/2

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

 

6.         T. frater albopilosa                                 polylectic; legumes                    3/21-5/29

                                                                        Deanothus

                                                                        Lupinus           

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Trifolium

 

7.         T. lunata                                       polylectic; legumes                    2/15-5/3

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Isomeris arborea

                                                                        Lupinus albifrons

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Ribes indecorum

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Solanum umbelliferum

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

8.         T. stretchii                                     Coreopsis maritima                   3/13-6/1

                                                                        Lupinus           

 

Tribe:  ANTHOPHORINI

 

Genus:  Anthophora

 

1.         A. (Anthophora) bomboides stanfordiana                                          4/26-7/7

            coastal                                                  polylectic:

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rosa californiica

 

2.         A. (Anthophora) californica californica                                             4/19-5/30

                                                                        polylectic:

                                                                        Isomeris arborea

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Penstemon  spectabilis

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solanum

 

3.         A. (Anthophora) crotchii             polylectic:                                 3/14-6/12

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Trichostema

 

4.         A. (Anthophora) edwardsii edwardsii                                                          2/11-5/10

                                                                        polylectic; legumes

                                                                        Berberis

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Ribes indecorum

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solanum

                                                                        Prunus

 

5.         A. (Anthophora) neglecta                        polylectic; legumes                    3/6-7/27

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Isomeris arborea

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Trichostema

 

6.         A. (Anthophora) urbana urbana            polylectic; composites               6/1-10/31

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Artemesia

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Epibolum

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasciculatum; latifolium

                                                                        Hyptis emoryi

                                                                        Iris

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Rosa

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solanum

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                       

Genus:  Emphoropsis                                       

 

1.         E. depressa                                               polylectic                                  3/28-5/9

            coast ranges                                      Arbutus manziesii

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Berberis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Lupinus albifrons

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Salvia

 

Tribe:  CERATINI

Bees in this tribe made nests in hollow, pithy, and/or rotten stems, and sometimes in vines.

 

Genus:  Ceratina (a.k.a. dwarf carpenter bees)

 

1.         C. (Zadontomerus) acantha acantha            polylectic                                  3/21-9/10

            low-elevation, not in deserts             Arctostaphylos                                                                                                             Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Baccharis pilularis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasciculatum; latufolium

                                                                        Fragaria

                                                                        Holodiscus discolor

                                                                        Lepechinia calycina

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Malacothanmus

                                                                        Monardella villosa

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Physocarpus capitatus

                                                                        Rhamnus californicus

                                                                        Rosa

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Savlia

                                                                        Sambucus mexicana

                                                                        Satureja douglasii

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Sisyrinchium

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trifolium

 

2.         C. (Zadontomerus) nanula                        polylectic                                  3/25-7/27

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Epilobium

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasciculatum; latifolium

                                                                        Lepechiniia

                                                                        Lupinus arboreus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Monardella villosa

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Plantago

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

Tribe:  XYLOCOPINI

 

Genus:  Xylocopa (a.k.a. giant carpenter bees)

 

1.         X. californica californica                     polylectic                                  6/2-8/4

            sierra nevada, trinities, great basin            Asclepias

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Aesculus californica

                                                                        Lupinus albifrons

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Solidago

 

2.         X. tabaniformis orpifex              polylectic                                  3/14-9/28

            not in deserts or central valley            Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Dicentra

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus cardinalis

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Salivia

                                                                        Solanum

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

 

FAMILY APIDAE

 

Subfamily:  BOMBINAE

 

Tribe:  BOMBINI

 

Genus:  Bombus (a.k.a. bumblebees)

 

1.         B. (Pyrobumbus) bifarius neacticus            polylectic; composites               3/1-10/31

            coastal; montane                                   Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Artemesia

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Baccharis pilularis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Epibolum

                                                                        Erigonom latifolium

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Solidago

                                               

2.         B. (Fervidobombus) californicus            polylectic                                  2/1-10/1

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Dicentra

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Isomeris

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Rosa

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

3.         B. (Pyrobombus) edwardsii                      polylectic                                  12/15-7/25

                                                                        Acer macrophyllum

                                                                        Arbutus menziesii

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Berberis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Cercis

                                                                        Cercocarpus betuloides

                                                                        Epibolum

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Ergonum

                                                                        Hyptis

                                                                        Isomeris

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Monardella villosa

                                                                        Myrica

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhamnus californicus

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Rosa

                                                                        Rhododendron

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Scrophularia californica

                                                                        Solanum

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

4.         B. (Pyrobombus) flavifrons dimidiatus                                             3/25-8/25

                                                                        polylectic

                                                                        Aquilegia formosa

                                                                        Arabis

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Epibolum

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Erigonum

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhododendron

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Solidago

 

5.         B. (Bombus) occidentalis ocidentalis                                                        2/1-11/25

            major N. Cal. Bee                              polylectic

                                                                        Adenostema fasciculatum

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Epilobium

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Rhododendron

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Symphoricarpos

                                                                        Tanacetum

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

6.         B. (Pyrobombus) vosnesenskii            polylectic; legumes                    all year

            coastal                                                  also composites

                                                                        Arbutus menziesii

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Berberis

                                                                        Cercis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Dicentra

                                                                        Epilobium

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Erigonum latifolium

                                                                        Irsis

                                                                        Isomeris

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia         

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Rhanmus californica

                                                                        Rhododendron

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Sidalcea                                 

                                                                        Solanum

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

                                                                       

FAMILY MEGACHILIDAE

Megachilid bees use foreign materials to build their nests, particularly in the construction of cell walls, such as leaves, plant down, leaf pulp, resin, petals, pebbles, mud, and clay.  Most species do not make their own burrows, but appropriate pre-existing holes, shells, or other cavities, or make nests in the open under stones or other objects. Oligolecty(specialization in plant visitation)  is common.

 

SUBFAMILY:  MEGACHILINAE

 

Tribe:  ANTHIDIINI

 

Genus:  Trachusa

 

1.         T. perdita                                      polylectic                                  5/1-6/14

            coastal chapparal, grassland                      Lupinus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Salvia

 

Genus:  Heteranthidium

 

1.         H. timberlakei                                            oligolege on composites            5/5-7/24

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Salvia

 

Genus:  Dianthidium

 

1.         D. dubium dilectum                                    polylectic; composites               5/13-9/15

coastal ranges                                      Dicentra

                                                                        Erigeron                                                         

                                                                        Eriogonum fasciculatum – *

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon     

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                       

2.         D. dubium dubium                         polylectic; composites               6/5-9/10

            north coast ranges                             Eriogonum latifolium

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

3.         D. pudicum consimile                                  polylectic, composites               3/10- 8/1                   south of S.F.                                          Eriogonum fasciculatum; latifoium

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Monardella                                                                                                                             Phacelia

                                                                        Salvia                                                  

                                                                        Trichostema

 

4.         D. ulkei ulkei                                         oligolectic on composites            3/24-9/22

                                                                        Aster ascendens

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasciculatum

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                       

Genus:  Anthidiellum

 

1.         A. notatum robertsoni                                 oligolectic on composites            5/24-10/25

            non-alpine, non-desert                           Aster adscendens

                                                                        Eriogonum latifoium

                                                                        Eriogonum fasciculatum *

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

 

Genus:  Callanthidium

 

1.         C. illustre                                       oligolectic on Phacelia             5/20-8/3

                                                                        Lupinus           

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

 

Genus:  Anthidium (a.k.a. carder bees)

 

1.         A. (Anthidium) collecutm collectum            oligolectic on Phacelia            3/12-7/20

            grasslands, mountains                            Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Sambucus

                                                                        Trichostema lanatum

           

2.         A. (Anthidium) edwardsii                      polylectic, emph Trichost.            5/3-10/15

            non-montane, non-alpine,             + Trifolium

            non-desert                                       Eriogonium

                                                                        Monardella                            

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

                                                           

3.         A. (Anthidium) maculosum                   polylectic; legumes                    6/1- 10/10

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                       

4.         A. (Anthidium) palliventre                     oligolectic on Phacelia; legumes

            coastal                                                  Lupinus                                    5/25-8/17

                                                                        Phacelia

 

5.         A. (Anthidium) utahense                       oligoliectic on Lotus                 5/26-7/20

            low-elevation, non-desert               Aster

                                                                        Artemesia

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Eriogonum fasciculatum

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Penstemon

 

Tribe:              MEGACHILINI

                                                                       

Genus:  Megachile (a.k.a. leaf-cutting bees)

 

1.         M. (Litomegachile) brevis brevis            polylectic, composites               2/7-10/1

            non-montane, non-desert               Asclepias eriocarpa

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Polygonum

                                                                        Trifolium

 

2.         M. (Litomegachile) brevis onobrychidis                                         6/6-10/17

            non-desert                                       polylectic, composites; legumes

                                                                        Asclepias eriocarpa

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Polygonum

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

           

3.         M. (Litomegachile) coquilletti            polylectic; legumes                    5/9-9/20

            non-desert                                       Asclepias

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Solidago

 

4.         M. (Sayapis) frugalis pseudofrugalis            polylectic                                  5/29-9/10

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Trichostema

 

5.         M. (Litomegachile) gentilis              polylectic                                  5/29-10/10

            non-alpine, non-desert                           Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Hyptis emoryi

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Polygonum

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trifolium

 

6.         M. (Megachile) montivaga                     polylectic                                  3/12-9/25

            montane, nests in Iris stems                Aster

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Iris

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trifolium

 

7.         M. (Argyropile) parallela facunda            oligolectic on composites            6/4-8/20

            non-desert                                       Coreopsis

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                       

8.         M. (Xanthosarus) perihirta                        oligolectic on composites            5/29-9/13

            non-desert                                       Aster

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Dicentra

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Rosa californica

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

9.         M. (Litomegachile) texana texana            polylectic                                  5/7-9/10

            non-desert                                       Asclepias

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Eriogonum fascl, latifol.

                                                                        Hyptis emoryi

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Polygonum

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Solidago

 

Genus:  Chelostomoides

 

1.         C. angelarum                                             polylectic                                  5/25-9/10

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Dicentra

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Solidago                     

                                                                        Sympyhoricarpus

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

Genus:  Chelostoma

 

1.         C. phaceliae                                              oligolectic on Phacelia            4/14-7/23

            grassland, savanna                                Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

 

Genus:  Chelostomopsis                                   

 

1.         C. rubifloris                                               polylectic, esp. Lupinus            3/17-8/3

            montane – understory, chapparal            Arbutus menziesee

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Ceanothus interrriumus

                                                                        Fragaria

                                                                        Lepechinia calycina

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus californica; crocea

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Salvia

                                                                        Satureja douglasii

                                                                        Sedum

                                                                        Trifolium

 

Genus:  Heriades

 

1.         H. (Physostetha) cressoni                        Oligolectic on                         6/26-9/10

            alpine, montane, coastal              summer composites:

                                                                        Achillea

                                                                        Aster adscendens

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum latif.

                                                                        Heteromeles arbutifolia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Solidago

 

2.         H. (Physostetha) occidentalis                   polylectic esp. Eriogonum            5/20-9/10

            nests in pine cones                                Adenostoma fasciculatum

            montane – chapparal, grassland            Asclepias fascicularis

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Heteromeles arbutifolia

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhus integrifolia

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora                           

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                       

Genus:  Ashmeadiella

 

1.         A. (Ashmeadiella) aridula astragali            polylectic                                  5/24-9/26

            grasslands                                             Phacelia

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                        Trifolium

 

2.         A. (Ashmeadiella) bucconis denticulata                                            6/15-10/1

                                                                        oligolectic on composites                                                                                                       Adenostoma

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Pentstemon

                                                                        Solidago

 

3.         A. (Ashmeadiella) californica californica                                             5/19-9/16

                                                                        polylectic; fall composites                  

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Pontentilla

                                                                        Solidago

 

4.         A. (Arogochila) timberlakei solida            oligolectic on legumes, esp       5/23-9/10

            coastal ranges                                      Phacelia

                                                                        Solidago

 

Genus:  Hoplitis

 

1.         H. (Monumetha) albifrons maura            oligolectic on Phacelia            5/13-8/12

            montane                                              Eriogonum

                                                                        Iris

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                       

2.         H. (Chlorosmia) folgida platyura            oligolectic on Phacelia            5/3-7/4

            montane, alpine                                    and other hydrophylls                  

                                                                        Fragaria

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Trichostema, Trifolium

 

3.         H. (Alcidamea) grinelli grinelli            polylectic, esp Phacelia            3/15-7/15

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Salvia

 

4.         H. (Cyrtosmia) hypocrita                      polylectic esp. legumes            3/20-7/7

montane, chaparral, grassland            Lupinus, Penstemon,

Salix, Salvia, Sambucus, Trifolium

 

5.         H. (Alcidamea) producta gracilis            polylectic esp. Phacelia            4/20-7/26

            montane – chapparal, grassland            Aster

                                                                        Lepechinia calycina

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Monardella villosa

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Rosa, Salix, Sidalcea, Trifolium

 

6.         H. (Alcidamea) sambuci                        polylectic                                  5/5-7/9

            montane                                              Asclepias

                                                                        Dicentra

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Lonicera

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Savlia, Trichostema

 

Genus:  Anthocopa      

 

1.         A. (Hexosmia) copelandica albomarginata                                       5/25-7/13     high montane                                               oligolectic on Phacelia

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Phacelia

 

Genus:  Osmia

 

1.         O. (Monilosmia) atrocyanea atrocyanea                                            3/28-7/15    

            north coast ranges                             polylectic, esp legumes

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Trifolium

 

2.         O. (Monilosmia) brevis peridonea            polylectic esp Penstemon            5/13-7/25

            montane, chaparral, forest understory       

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Fragaria

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhus, Salvia

 

3.         O. (Chenosmia) bruneri              polylectic                                  5/22-9/23

            montane                                              Lepechinia calycina

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Sidalcea malveaflora

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trifolium

 

4.         O. (Cephalosmia) californica                     oligolectic on composites            3/28-7/25

                                                                        esp Cirsium; Wyethea                                  

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon, Phacelia

                                                                        Salix

 

5.         O. (Chenosmia) calla                             oligolectic on legumes            2/2-7/4

            coast range                                        Lepechinia calycina

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Malacothamnus

                                                                        Penstemon, Phacelia, Pontentilla

                                                                        Trichostema, Trifolium

 

6.         O. (Chenosmia) cobaltina                       polylectic                                  4/1-8/10

                                                                        Arctostaphylos patula

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus, Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon, Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla, Sambucus

 

7.         O. (Chalcosmia) coloradensis                 oligolectic on composites            3/18-8/2

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Mimulus, Phacelia

                                                                        Rhus

 

8.         O. (Monilosmia) cyanella                        polylectic                                  4/29-7/1

            montane, grassland, chaparral,             Fragaria

            savanna understory                                Iris

                                                                        Lepechinia calycina

                                                                        Lupinus, Mimulus, Penstemon, Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

 

9.         O. (Monilosmia) densa densa                  oligolectic on legumes            5/2-7/25

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Iris

                                                                        Lupinus, Mimulus, Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon, Phacelia

                                                                        Ribes

 

10.       O. (Chenosmia) kincaidii                        oligolectic on legumes            4/25-7/8

            coast ranges                                      Fragaria

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Trifolium

 

11.       O. (Osmia) lignaria propinqua            polylectic esp Arctostaphylos, 3/23-6/4

                                                                        Arbutus, Salix, and Ribes

                                                                        Arbutus menziesii

                                                                        Arctostaphylos patula

                                                                        Berberis

                                                                        Ceanothus integerimus

                                                                        Cercis occidentalis

                                                                        Cercocarpus betulifolius

                                                                        Isomeris arborea

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon, Phacelia

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus californica; crocea

                                                                        Ribes

                                                                        Salix, Salvia, Trifolium

                                                                        Viola

 

12.       O. (Cephalosmia) montana quadriceps                                            4/9-8/12

                                                                        oligolectic on composites

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Ceanothus integerrimus

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon, Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Ribes, Salvia

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

 

13.       O. (Acanthosmoides) nigrobarbata            oligolectic on legumes            3/21-5/6

            montane                                              Lupinus

                                                                        Mimulus

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Salvia

 

14.       O. (Osmia) ribifloris biedermannii            oligolictic on Arctostaphyhlos?

                                                                                                                        2/15-6/13

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Ribes, Salix, Salvia

 

15.       O. (Chalcosmia) texana              oligolectic on composites            4/5-7/8

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

 

FAMILY ANDRENIDAE

Most Andrenid bees are solitary and build nests in the ground.

 

Subfamily:  ANDRENINAE

 

Genus:  Andrena

 

1.         A. (Simandrena) angustitarsata            polylectic esp. Ceanothus            4/25-5/3

                                                                        and Salix

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Salix

 

2.         A. (Derandrean) arctostaphyllae            oligolectic on Arctostaphylos            2/2-5/20

            montane                                              Arctostaphylos

 

3.         A. (Xanthandrean) auricoma                      polylectic esp. Potentilla and            2/26-6/30

            montane                                              Scrophularia california or other

                                                                        shaded herbs

                                                                        Fragaria

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Malacothamnus

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Prunus, Rhus, Salix, Salvia

                                                                        Scrophularia californica

                                                                        Sedum

                                                                        Sisyrinchium bellum

 

4.         A. (Thysandrena) candida                        polylectic esp. Ceanothus            1/28-6/3

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus integerrimus; foliosa

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc

                                                                        Isomeris arborea

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia

Prunus ilicifolia

Rhamnus crocea; ilicifolia; californica

Salix laevigata

Salvia, Sambucus

Adenostoma fasciculatum

Arctostaphylos

 

5.         A. (Micrandrena) candidiformis            oligolectic on Ceanothus            3/20-6/18

                                                                        Arctostaphylos patula

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus integerriumus

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Salix laevigata

                                                                        Solanum

 

6.         A. (Melandrena) carliniformis            polylectic                                  4/13-7/4

            north coastal bluffs                             Ceanothus

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Lupinus

                                                                        Phacelia, Potentilla, Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus, Salix, Salvia

 

7.         A. (Micrandrena) chlorogaster            polylectic, esp. Ceanothus            3/1-5/18

                                                                        and Salix

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Phacelia, Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus crocea

                                                                        Rhus

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Sambucus

 

8.         A. (Parandrena) concinnula                    oligolectic on Salix                    12/24-4/17

            chaparral                                              Salix

                                                           

9.         A. (Trachandrena) cupreotincta            polylectic                                  4/14-7/2

            montane                                              Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Ribes, Rhus, Salix

 

10.       A. (Paradrena) navadensis                    oligolectic on Salix                   

            scrub communites                              Salix

 

11.       A. (Geandrena) nigrocaerulea                polylectic esp. Sisyrinchium            3/30-9/1

                                                                        Arbutus menziesii

                                                                        Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Mimulus, Phacelia, Prunus

                                                                        Rhamnus crocea

                                                                        Potentilla, Salix

                                                                        Sisyrinchium bellum

 

12.       A. (Micandrena) piperi                polylectic, pref crucifers            3/1-5/31

            grasslands                                             Lupinus, Phacelia, Prunus, Salix

                                                                       

13.       A. (Scaphandrena) plana                oligolectic on Trifolium            4/24-6/12

            grasslands – coast ranges              Trifolium

 

14.       A. (Plastandrena) purnorum prumorum                                             3/3-8/20

            montane                                              polylectic

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus integerriums

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Prunus, Rhus, Ribes

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Sambucus

                                                                        Salix, Trichostema, Solidago

                                                                        Adenostema fasciculatum

 

15.       A. (Melandrena) sola                              polylectic                                  3/31-6/6

            grasslands                                             Arctostaphylos

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Prunus

                                                                        Quercus

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Rhus, Salix, Solanum

 

16.       A. (Tylandrena) subtilis subtilis            polylectic                                  3/11-6/18

            grasslands, weedy communities            Baccharis

                                                                        Prunus, Salix

 

 

Subfamily:  PANURGINAE

 

Tribe:  PANURGINI

 

Genus:  Nomadopsis

 

1.         N. (Macronomomadopsis) anthidia anthidia                                                4/12-7/30

                                                                        oligolectic on Trifolium

                                                                        Trifolium

 

2.         N. (Micronomadopsis) trifolii                    oligolectic on Trifolium and       4/25-8/4

            coast ranges – grasslands and             Mimulus

            forest understory                                Trifolium

                                                                        Mimulus

 

 

FAMILY HALICTIDAE

 

Subfamily:  HALICTINAE (a.k.a. sweat bees)

 

Genus:  Agopostomen

 

1.         A. texanus angelicus                                   polylectic, esp composites            3/13-10/30

                                                                        Artemesia

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Epibolum

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc., latifol.

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Malacothamnus

                                                                        Monardella

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhododendron occidentale

                                                                        Rhus, Salvia

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Sisyrinchium bellum

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

                                                                       

Genus:  Augochlorella

 

1.         A. (Augochlorella) pomoniella            polylectic                                  3/24-9/22

                                                                        all types

 

Genus:  Halictus           

 

1.         H. (Halictus) farinosus                       polylectic                                  2/16-8/15

                                                                        all types

 

2.         H. (Halictus) ligatus                           polylectic esp summer and       4/3-11/3

                                                                        fall composites      

                                                                        Asclepias

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Erigeron, Eriogonum

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Phacelia, Salix, Solidago

                                                                        Trifolium

 

3.         H. (Halictus) rubicundus                    polylectic                                  5/15-9/13

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Erigeron

                                                                        Potentilla

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Salix

                                                                        Sidalcea malvaeflora

                                                                        Solidago

 

4.         H. (Seladonia) tripartitus                      polylectic                                  3/3-10/10

                                                                        all types

 

Genus:  Lasioglossum

 

1.         L. sisymbrii                                               polylectic                                  3/2-10/1

                                                                        all types

 

Genus:  Evyleus

 

1.         E. kincaidii                                                polylectic                                  3/8-9/22

                                                                        Asclepias speciosa

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Epilobium

                                                                        Heterotheca

                                                                        Lilium

                                                                        Mentha

                                                                        Salix, Solidago

 

Genus:  Dialictus                                              

 

1.         D. incompletus                              polylectic                                  2/8-11/2

            only south of S.F.                             all types

 

2.         D. nevadensis                                            polylectic                                  3/12-9/1

            montane                                              all types

 

3.         D. tegulariformis                            polylectic                                  2/3-9/25

            not in alpine south of S.F.                  all types

 

Subfamily:  NOMIINAE

 

Genus:  Nomia (a.k.a. the alfalfa bee)

 

1.         N. (Acunomia) melanderi melanderi            polylectic esp. Medicago            summer

            agricultural areas                                  Asclepias

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Polygonum

                                                                        Solanum, Solidago, Trofolium

 

Subfamily:  DUFORINAE

 

Genus:  Duforea

 

1.         D. (Halictoides) mulleri              oligolectic on Phacelia            3/15-6/1

            coast ranges                                      Phacelia

 

2.         D. (Halictoides) sandhousae sandhousae                                           3/12-5/21

            grassland communites                           polylectic

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Phacelia, Prunus, Salvia

 

3.         D. (Halictoides) versatilis rubriventris                                           5/15-8/12

            montane, alpine Siskyous                       oligolectic on Mimulus

                                                                        Mimulus

 

 

FAMILY COLLETIDAE

Colletid bees are the most primitive bees in the world.  They are most abundant in the southern hemisphere.

 

Subfamily:  COLLETINAE

 

Tribe:              COLLETINI

 

Genus:  Colletes

 

1.         C. consors pascoensis                                oligolectic on Phacelia            4/16-8/8

            montane, alpine                                    Phacelia

                                                                        Sedum

 

2.         C. fulgidus fulgidus                         oligolectic on fall composites            6/6-6/10

            montane                                              Aster

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Coreopsis

                                                                        Erigeron, Eriogonum fasc.; latifol.

                                                                        Rhus, Solidago

 

3.         C. simulans nevadensis                    oligolectic on fall composites            8/28-10/15

                                                                        Solidago, Eriogonum

 

4.         C. slevini                                       polylectic esp Eriogonum             4/7-9/23

            chapparal                                            and Rhamnus                     

                                                                        Adenostoma fasciculatum

                                                                        Baccharis pilularis

                                                                         Ceanothus

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Phacelia

                                                                        Rhamnus californica

                                                                        Solidago

                                                                        Aster

                                                                        Heteromeles arbutifolia

                                                                        Rhus, Ribes, Solidago

 

Subfamily: HYLAEINAE

 

Genus:  Hylaeus

 

1.         H. (Paraprosopis) calvus               polylectic esp. Rhamnus             5/12-7/19

                                                                        and Ceanothus

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Holodiscus discolor

                                                                        Penstemon

                                                                        Prunus, Rhamnus

 

2.         H. (Hylaeus) conspicuus                    polylectic                                  5/20-9/29

            low elevation, not in desert               Asclepias

                                                                        Baccharis

                                                                        Ceanothus

                                                                        Eriogonum

                                                                        Phacelia, Prunus, Salix, Solidago

                                                                        Trichostema

 

3.         H. (Hylaeus) cressoni cressoni            polylectic                                  3/31-9/10

            not in alpine regions                            all kinds

 

4.         H. (Paraprospopis) polifolii                       polylectic                                  3/10-10/2

            coastal, coastal ranges                           all kinds

 

                                                           

                                   

                                   

                                                                       

REFERENCES

USED COMPILING "BAY AREA BEE LIST" AND NATIVE BEE PAMPHLET

 

1.              Catalog of the Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, prepared collaboratively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein et. al.  Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.

 

2.              Michener, C D. The Bees of the World.  Baltimore, MD:  Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.  

 

3.              O’Toole, C. and A. Raw.  Bees of the World.  New York, NY:  Facts on File, 1991.  

 

4.              Moldenke, A R and J. L. Neff.  The Bees of California:  a catalog with special relevance to pollination and ecological research, in Origin and Structure of Ecosystems technical report [6 vol. Series]. Santa Cruz, CA:  Board of Studies in Biology, University of California, 1974.

 

5.              Communicating Ecosystem Services: Pollination.  A compliation by the Sound Science Initiative of the Union of Concerned Scientists (Cambridge, MA) and the Ecological Society of America (Washington, DC).  2000

            http://www.esa.sdsc.edu/ecoservices   

 

6.         The Bee Works: http://www.thebeeworks.com